The lack of a sovereign Palestinian state and the continuation of the Israeli illegal military occupation according to international law, have profoundly affected the social transformation, institutional development, political economy, and politics of Palestine. This chapter also reflects on the ongoing struggle between the two main Palestinian parties, Hamas and Fatah, and why the ambiguity of the relations between the quasi-state institutions of the PA and the officially prominent role of the PLO are fundamental for Palestinian politics. Additionally, it highlights more recent developments such as the growing impact of the Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanction (BDS) movement, the accession to the International Criminal Court (ICC), the consequences of the wars on Gaza 2008–2014, the wave of protests in the Gaza Strip, called “The Great March of Return”, and the impact of the Trump Administration in the USA.

A co-authored chapter with Professor Benoît Challand on Palestine in the 15th edition of “The Middle East” edited by Professor Ellen Lust (Yale University), CQ Press, August 2019.

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